Orchitis is the inflammation of one or both testicles. Bacterial or viral infections can cause orchitis. Orchitis is most often the result of a bacterial infection, such as a sexually transmitted infection. In some cases, the mumps virus can cause orchitis. In some cases, bacterial orchitis will be associated with epididymitis — an inflammation of the coiled tube (epididymis) at the back of the testicle that stores and carries sperm.
Orchitis causes pain and can affect fertility. Medication can treat the causes of bacterial orchitis and can ease some signs and symptoms of viral orchitis. But it can take several weeks for scrotal tenderness to disappear.
Signs & symptoms
- Swelling in one or both testicles
- Pain ranging from mild to severe
- Nausea and vomiting
- General feeling of unwellness (malaise)
Orchitis can be caused by a bacterial or viral infection. Sometimes a cause of orchitis can’t be determined.
Most often, bacterial orchitis is associated with epididymitis. Epididymitis usually is caused by an infection of the urethra or bladder that spreads to the epididymis.
Often, the cause of the infection is a sexually transmitted infection. Other causes of infection can be related to having been born with abnormalities in the urinary tract or having had a catheter or medical instruments inserted into the penis.
The mumps virus usually causes viral orchitis. Nearly one-third of males who contract the mumps after puberty develop orchitis, usually four to seven days after onset of the mumps.
Orchitis which is not sexually transmitted can develop in people:
- Not being immunized against mumps
- Having recurring urinary tract infections
- Having surgery that involves the genitals or urinary tract
- Being born with an abnormality in the urinary tract
Risk of sexually transmitted orchitis include:
- Multiple sexual partners
- Sex with a partner who has a sexually transmitted disease
- Sex without a condom
- A personal history of sexually transmitted disease
Orchitis is one of the genitourinary infections to result mostly from a viral pathogen. Mumps orchitis occurs in many of the adults infected with the mumps virus. Other viruses that can cause the disease include coxsackie B, mononucleosis and varicella. Unlike the majority of genitourinary infections, viral particles are spread to the testicle by the hematogenous route. Granulomatous orchitis is rare and results from hematogenous dissemination of tuberculosis, fungi and actinomycosis.
STI screening test
Treatment solely depends on the cause of orchitis.
Antibiotics are needed to treat bacterial orchitis and epididymo-orchitis. If the cause of the bacterial infection is an STI, your sexual partner also needs treatment.
Treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms and it includes:
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB etc) or naproxen sodium (Aleve)
- Bed rest and elevating your scrotum
- Cold packs
Most cases of both viral and bacterial orchitis show excellent prognosis with treatment without any complications.
- Testicular atrophy
- Scrotal abscess formation
Disease & Ayurveda
Causative factors for the vitiation of Pittadosha
Due to causative factors, Pittadosha gets vitiated and circulate in the system. When it gets lodged in the vrushana/phalakosa, kurandaroga develops.
Pain and swelling in the testicles
Lepanam with Rookshana dravyas
Erandatailadi taila intake
Intake of yogas with Indravaruni
Lepana with eeswarimuladi yoga
Commonly used medicines
Rest in bed
Lie down so that your scrotum is elevated
Apply cold packs to your scrotum as tolerated
Avoid lifting heavy objects
- To be avoided
Heavy meals and difficult to digest foods – cause indigestion.
Junk foods- cause disturbance in digestion and reduces the bioavailability of the medicine
Carbonated drinks – makes the stomach more acidic and disturbed digestion
Refrigerated and frozen foods – causes weak and sluggish digestion by weakening Agni (digestive fire)
Milk and milk products – increase kapha, cause obstruction in channels and swelling
Curd – causes vidaaha, inflammation and thereby many other diseases
- To be added
Light meals and easily digestible foods
Green gram, soups, fresh fruits and vegetables
Freshly cooked and warm food processed with cumin seeds, ginger, black pepper, ajwain etc
Protect yourself from extreme climate changes.
Better to avoid exposure to excessive sunlight wind rain or dust.
Maintain a regular food and sleep schedule.
Avoid holding or forcing the urges like urine, faeces, cough, sneeze etc.
Avoid a sedentary lifestyle. Be active
Wear loose and cotton clothing, especially innerwears.
Regular stretching and mild cardio exercises are advised in mild cases, if the person is comfortable. Also, specific yogacharya including naadisuddhi pranayama, bhujangaasana, pavanamuktasana is recommended.
Regular exercise helps improve bioavailability of the medicine and food ingested and leads to positive health.
Yoga can maintain harmony within the body and with the surrounding system.
All the exercises and physical exertions must be decided and done under the supervision of a medical expert only.